We’ve heard this question a lot lately (especially from my office desk workers). The short answer is, yes! The problem with having poor ergonomics at work is that it causes increased tension on muscles and compression of joints. It's not a problem to have bad posture for a few seconds, but if you have it for the entire day your body will definitely be upset with you. Since majority of conditions result from accumulation, improving your ergonomics at work is a factor for preventing injury and improving muscle and joint stiffness.
Now for the long answer: We know that many physical complaints don't result from one incident of factor, but from a series of accumulated physical stresses that lead to failure of the body part. If you have poor ergonomics (or posture) at work, this can repetitively cause a problem to accumulate in the spine.
Research tell us that a multi-modal approach to physical health is what gets the best results. That means a strategy of combined interventions. For many people, the most widely used strategies are a COMBINATION of ergonomics, exercises, and manual therapies like chiropractic care.
As a quick refresher, here's a quick video on proper desk ergonomics (remember to also think about your ergonomics if your job is active or even standing!)
Definitely take a look at your workstation (whatever job you have) and see if there can be any improvement made.